Species of Plants Seen at Unexpected Wildlife Refuge

All the plants listed have been identified at the Refuge. The list is current as of 2019-10-06.


  1. Adam's needle and thread (Yucca filamentosa)
  2. Amber jelly roll fungus (Exidia recisa)
  3. Amberique-bean (Strophostyles helvola)
  4. American black elderberry (Sambucus canadensis)
  5. American bur-reed (Sparganium americanum)
  6. American holly (Ilex opaca)
  7. American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
  8. American plantain (Plantago rugelii)
  9. American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)
  10. American white waterlily (Nymphaea odorata)
  11. American wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)
  12. Apple tree (Malus pumila)
  13. Asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis)
  14. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)
  15. Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)
  16. Bastard toadflax (Comandra umbellata)
  17. Bearded iris (Iris germanica)
  18. Bentgrass (Agrostis)
  19. Big-tooth aspen (Populus grandidentata)
  20. Black birch (Betula nigra)
  21. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)
  22. Black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata)
  23. Blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica)
  24. Bleeding heart (Lamprocapnos spectabilis)
  25. Blue toadflax (Nuttallanthus canadensis)
  26. Blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium)
  27. Blunt mannagrass (Glyceria obtusa)
  28. Blusher mushroom (Amanita rubescens)
  29. Bog yelloweyed grass (Xyris difformis)
  30. Bog-fern (Thelypteris simulata)
  31. Border privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium)
  32. Boxelder maple (Acer negundo)
  33. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)
  34. Bracted plantain (Plantago aristata)
  35. British soldiers lichen (Cladonia cristatella)
  36. Broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius)
  37. Broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia)
  38. Broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus)
  39. Brown-eyed rim lichen (Lecanora allophana)
  40. Brown-fruited rush (Juncus pelocarpus)
  41. Brownish beaksedge (Rhynchospora capitellata)
  42. Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare)
  43. Bushy beardgrass (Andropogon glomeratus)
  44. Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
  45. Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis)
  46. Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa)
  47. Canadian black snakeroot (Sanicula canadensis)
  48. Canadian columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
  49. Canadian St. Johns-wort (Hypericum canadense)
  50. Capitate spikerush (Eleocharis olivacea)
  51. Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis)
  52. Carolina horsenettle (Solanum carolinense)
  53. Cat greenbriar (Smilax glauca)
  54. Catalpa (Catalpa)
  55. Catchweed (Galium aparine)
  56. Catsear (Hypochaeris radicata)
  57. Cattail (Typha)
  58. Cedar-apple rust fungus (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae)
  59. Chickweed (Stellaria media)
  60. Chinese bushclover (Lespedeza cuneata)
  61. Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense)
  62. Cinnabar red chanterelle mushroom (Cantharellus cinnabarinus)
  63. Cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea)
  64. Clasping Venus' looking-glass (Triodanis perfoliata)
  65. Clasping water-horehound (Lycopus amplectens)
  66. Clearweed (Pilea pumila)
  67. Climbing false buckwheat (Fallopia scandens)
  68. Climbing hempvine (Mikania scandens)
  69. Coastal sweetpepperbush (Clethra alnifolia)
  70. Collins' sedge (Carex collinsii)
  71. Common blue violet (Viola sororia)
  72. Common bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta)
  73. Common club moss (Lycopodium clavatum)
  74. Common dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)
  75. Common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)
  76. Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
  77. Common mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)
  78. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea)
  79. Common pyxie-moss (Pyxidanthera barbulata)
  80. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)
  81. Common reed (Phragmites australis)
  82. Common self-heal (Prunella vulgaris)
  83. Common vetch (Vicia sativa)
  84. Common yellow woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta)
  85. Conocybe mushroom (Conocybe)
  86. Cranesbill (Geranium)
  87. Crown-tipped coral fungus (Artomyces pyxidatus)
  88. Crowned beggarticks (Bidens coronata)
  89. Curly dock (Rumex crispus)
  90. Cutleaf evergreen blackberry (Rubus laciniatus)
  91. Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum)
  92. Dangleberry (Gaylussacia frondosa)
  93. Deertongue (Dichanthelium clandestinum)
  94. Devil's beggarticks (Bidens frondosa)
  95. Dodder (Cuscuta)
  96. Dotted knotweed (Persicaria punctata)
  97. Downy rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera pubescens)
  98. Drooping brome (Bromus tectorum)
  99. Duckweed (Lemnoideae)
  100. Dwarf cinquefoil (Potentilla canadensis)
  101. Dwarf dandelion (Krigia virginica)
  102. Dwarf hawthorn (Crataegus uniflora)
  103. Dwarf St. John's wort (Hypericum mutilum)
  104. Eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptychanthum)
  105. Eastern black oak (Quercus velutina)
  106. Eastern hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula)
  107. Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
  108. Ebony spleenwort (Asplenium platyneuron)
  109. Emetic russula mushroom (Russula emetica)
  110. Engelmann's arrowhead (Sagittaria engelmanniana)
  111. English ivy (Hedera helix)
  112. Evergreen azalea (Rhododendron indicum)
  113. False nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica)
  114. False turkey-tail (Stereum ostrea)
  115. Fetterbush (Eubotrys racemosa)
  116. Field pepperwort (Lepidium campestre)
  117. Field pussytoes (Antennaria neglecta)
  118. Fireweed (Erechtites hieraciifolius)
  119. Floating pondweed (Potamogeton natans)
  120. Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida)
  121. Foliose lichen
  122. Forked bluecurls (Trichostema dichotomum)
  123. Frostweed (Helianthemum canadense)
  124. Goat's rue (Tephrosia virginiana)
  125. Golden chanterelle fungus (Craterellus lutescens)
  126. Goldenrod (Solidago)
  127. Grape fern (Sceptridium dissectum)
  128. Grass-leaved goldenrod (Euthamia graminifolia)
  129. Gray birch (Betula populifolia)
  130. Great lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica)
  131. Great mullein (Verbascum thapsus)
  132. Green arrow arum (Peltandra virginica)
  133. Green wood orchid (Platanthera clavellata)
  134. Ground-ivy (Glechoma hederacea)
  135. Hairy bedstraw (Galium pilosum)
  136. Hairy bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta)
  137. Hairy tare (Vicia hirsuta)
  138. Halberd-leaved tearthumb (Tracaulon arifolium)
  139. Hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa)
  140. Hickory (Carya)
  141. Hillside blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum)
  142. Honey fungus (mushroom) (Armillaria mellea)
  143. Horn of plenty mushroom (Craterellus cornucopioides)
  144. Horseweed (Erigeron canadensis)
  145. Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica)
  146. Indian pipe (Monotropa uniflora)
  147. Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata)
  148. Inkberry (Ilex glabra)
  149. Ivy-leaved morning glory (Ipomoea hederacea)
  150. Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
  151. Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii)
  152. Japanese clover (Kummerowia striata)
  153. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)
  154. Japanese pachysandra (Pachysandra terminalis)
  155. Japanese silverberry (Elaeagnus umbellata)
  156. Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum)
  157. Juniper (Juniperus)
  158. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
  159. Kerria (Kerria japonica)
  160. Lake loosestrife (Lysimachia terrestris)
  161. Lance-leaved violet (Viola lanceolata)
  162. Late boneset (Eupatorium serotinum)
  163. Late purple aster (Symphyotrichum patens)
  164. Least pepperwort (Lepidium virginicum)
  165. Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata)
  166. Lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor)
  167. Lesser trefoil (Trifolium dubium)
  168. Lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis)
  169. Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum)
  170. Lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)
  171. Little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)
  172. Lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
  173. Maleberry (Lyonia ligustrina)
  174. Marsh fern (Thelypteris palustris)
  175. Marsh lady's tresses (Spiranthes odorata)
  176. Maryland golden-aster (Chrysopsis mariana)
  177. Mexican-tea (Dysphania ambrosioides)
  178. Moccasin flower (Cypripedium acaule)
  179. Mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa)
  180. Morrow's honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii)
  181. Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
  182. Mouse-ear hawkweed (Pilosella officinarum)
  183. Mullein (Verbascum)
  184. Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora)
  185. Musk thistle (Carduus nutans)
  186. Narrow-leaf blue-eyed-grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium)
  187. Narrow-leaved sundrops (Oenothera fruticosa)
  188. Narrowleaf cow wheat (Melampyrum lineare)
  189. Netted chain fern (Woodwardia areolata)
  190. New Jersey blueberry (Vaccinium caesariense)
  191. New York aster (Symphyotrichum novi-belgii)
  192. Nimblewill (Muhlenbergia schreberi)
  193. Northern bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica)
  194. Northern bog violet (Viola nephrophylla)
  195. Northern bugleweed (Lycopus uniflorus)
  196. Northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)
  197. Northern long sedge (Carex folliculata)
  198. Northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
  199. Norway maple (Acer platanoides)
  200. Norway spruce (Picea abies)
  201. Oak-loving Gymnopus (Gymnopus dryophilus)
  202. Old man of the woods fungus (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)
  203. Orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis)
  204. Orange milkwort (Polygala lutea)
  205. Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata)
  206. Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus)
  207. Oriental lady's thumb (Persicaria longiseta)
  208. Orpine (Sedum telephium)
  209. Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
  210. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)
  211. Panicledleaf ticktrefoil (Desmodium paniculatum)
  212. Partridge berry (Mitchella repens)
  213. Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica)
  214. Perforate St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum)
  215. Phellinus fungus (Phellinus)
  216. Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata)
  217. Pignut hickory (Carya glabra)
  218. Pincushion moss (Leucobryum glaucum)
  219. Pine (Pinus)
  220. Pinesap (Monotropa hypopitys)
  221. Pipsissewa (Chimaphila umbellata)
  222. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida)
  223. Plantain leaf pussytoes (Antennaria plantaginifolia)
  224. Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
  225. Poplar (Populus)
  226. Post oak (Quercus stellata)
  227. Poverty oatgrass (Danthonia spicata)
  228. Puffball fungus
  229. Purple lovegrass (Eragrostis spectabilis)
  230. Purplestem beggarticks (Bidens connata)
  231. Purpletop tridens (Tridens flavus)
  232. Rare clubmoss (Lycopodium obscurum)
  233. Red cedar (Juniperus virginiana)
  234. Red chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia)
  235. Red maple (Acer rubrum)
  236. Red raspberry slime (Tubifera ferruginosa)
  237. Red sorrel (Rumex acetosella)
  238. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea)
  239. Reindeer lichen (Cladonia rangiferina)
  240. Rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides)
  241. Riverbank grape (Vitis riparia)
  242. Rose campion (Silene coronaria)
  243. Rough boneset (Eupatorium pilosum)
  244. Rough buttonweed (Diodella teres)
  245. Rough cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)
  246. Rough sunflower (Helianthus divaricatus)
  247. Rough-stemmed goldenrod (Solidago rugosa)
  248. Rounded earthstar mushroom (Geastrum saccatum)
  249. Roundleaf greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia)
  250. Royal fern (Osmunda regalis)
  251. Ruffle lichen (Parmotrema)
  252. Sand hickory (Carya pallida)
  253. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
  254. Scarlet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens)
  255. Scrambled egg slime (Fuligo septica)
  256. Scrub oak (Quercus ilicifolia)
  257. Sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis)
  258. Sessile bellwort (Uvularia sessilifolia)
  259. Sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)
  260. Shortbristle horned beaksedge (Rhynchospora corniculata)
  261. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata)
  262. Silver berry (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
  263. Skunk cabbage (Lysichiton americanus)
  264. Slender aster (Eurybia compacta)
  265. Slender bush clover (slender lespedeza)
  266. Slender rush (Juncus tenuis)
  267. Slender spikegrass (Chasmanthium laxum)
  268. Slender-leaved goldenrod (Euthamia tenuifolia)
  269. Small crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)
  270. Smooth alder (Alnus serrulata)
  271. Smooth sawgrass (Cladium mariscoides)
  272. Smooth winterberry (Ilex laevigata)
  273. Soft rush (Juncus effusus)
  274. Sour gum (Nyssa sylvatica)
  275. Southern red oak (Quercus falcata)
  276. Southern twayblade orchid (Neottia bifolia)
  277. Southern wood-sorrel (Oxalis dillenii)
  278. Spatulate leaved sundew (Drosera intermedia)
  279. Spiky bog-moss (Sphagnum squarrosum)
  280. Spindle-shaped yellow coral fungus (Clavulinopsis fusiformis)
  281. Spinulose woodfern (Dryopteris carthusiana)
  282. Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata)
  283. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)
  284. Spotted wintergreen (Chimaphila maculata)
  285. Spruce (Picea)
  286. St. Andrew's cross (Hypericum hypericoides)
  287. Staggerbush (Lyonia mariana)
  288. Steeplebush (Spiraea tomentosa)
  289. Sticky mouse-ear chickweed (Cerastium glomeratum)
  290. Striped bladderwort (Utricularia striata)
  291. Sulphur shelf fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus)
  292. Summer grape (Vitis aestivalis)
  293. Swamp azalea (Rhododendron viscosum)
  294. Swamp dewberry (Rubus hispidus)
  295. Swamp honeysuckle (Lonicera oblongifolia)
  296. Swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus)
  297. Swamp rose (Rosa palustris)
  298. Swamp smartweed (Persicaria hydropiperoides)
  299. Sweet autumn clematis (Clematis terniflora)
  300. Sweet everlasting (Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium)
  301. Sweet goldenrod (Solidago odora)
  302. Sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
  303. Sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum)
  304. Sweet violet (Viola odorata)
  305. Sweet white violet (Viola blanda)
  306. Sweetbay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana)
  307. Sweetfern (Comptonia peregrina)
  308. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)
  309. Tall beaksedge (Rhynchospora macrostachya)
  310. Three-seeded mercury (Acalypha rhomboidea)
  311. Threeway sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum)
  312. Tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium)
  313. Timothy-grass (Phleum pratense)
  314. Toothed white-topped-aster (Sericocarpus asteroides)
  315. Trailing arbutus (Epigaea repens)
  316. Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
  317. Trumpet vine (Campsis radicans)
  318. Tufted knotweed (Polygonum cespitosum)
  319. Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)
  320. Turk's cap lily (Lilium superbum)
  321. Turkey tail fungus (Trametes versicolor)
  322. Tussock sedge (Carex stricta)
  323. Twisted moss (Tortula ruralis)
  324. Unicorn root (Aletris farinosa)
  325. Velvet panicum (Dichanthelium scoparium)
  326. Violet coral mushroom (Clavaria zollingeri)
  327. Virginia chain fern (Woodwardia virginica)
  328. Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia)
  329. Virginia marsh-St. John's-wort (Triadenum virginicum)
  330. Virginia meadow-beauty (Rhexia virginica)
  331. Virginia threeseed mercury (Acalypha virginica)
  332. Virginia water horehound (Lycopus virginicus)
  333. Virginia willow (Itea virginica)
  334. Viscid violet cort (Cortinarius iodes)
  335. Walter's sedge (Carex striata)
  336. Warty panicgrass (Panicum verrucosum)
  337. Water purslane (Ludwigia palustris)
  338. Water-shield (Brasenia schreberi)
  339. White beak-sedge (Rhynchospora alba)
  340. White campion (Silene latifolia)
  341. White clover (Trifolium repens)
  342. White coral slime mold (Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa)
  343. White fringed orchid (Platanthera blephariglottis)
  344. White mulberry (Morus alba)
  345. White oak tree (Quercus alba)
  346. White thoroughwort (Eupatorium album)
  347. White-pored chicken of the woods (Laetiporus cincinnatus)
  348. Wild black cherry (Prunus serotina)
  349. Wild daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
  350. Wild grape (Vitis)
  351. Wild iris (Iris)
  352. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa)
  353. Wild lupine (Lupinus perennis)
  354. Wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
  355. Wild sensitive plant (Chamaecrista nictitans)
  356. Wild teasel (Dipsacus fullonum)
  357. Wild yam (Dioscorea villosa)
  358. Willow (Salix)
  359. Willow oak (Quercus phellos)
  360. Winged spindle (Euonymus alatus)
  361. Winged sumac (Rhus copallinum)
  362. Winterberry (Ilex verticillata)
  363. Wintergreen (Pyrola)
  364. Wisteria (Wisteria)
  365. Wood ear fungus (Auricularia auricula-judae)
  366. Woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus)
  367. Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
  368. Yellow fringed orchid (Platanthera ciliaris)
  369. Yellow water-lily (Nuphar lutea)
  370. Yellowseed false pimpernel (Lindernia dubia)
  371. Yucca