Beavers at the Refuge, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Moss on Boundary Trail, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Moonlit main pond, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Elegant spreadwing damselfly, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Racoon on trail camera near Wild Goose Blind, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Northern water snake in main pond, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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House wren near Headquarters, photo by Leor Veleanu
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Luna moth male on porch at Headquarters, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Bleeding heart flowering near Headquarters, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Northern cricket frog in Miller Pond, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo
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Fungi on fallen tree on Boundary Trail, Unexpected Wildlife Refuge photo

Unexpected Wildlife Refuge is a protected natural habitat comprising 767 acres of pristine pine lands, forest, fields, bogs, streams and lakes. It provides a refuge to animals and plants indigenous to southern New Jersey; a place where wildlife can live freely and naturally without fear of being harmed at the hands of human beings. We began as the home of Hope Sawyer Buyukmihci and Cavit Buyukmihci, who dedicated their land to habitat preservation so that native wildlife and habitat could thrive. We are a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) entity, federal ID 23-7025010.
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Literature on Beavers

This is a list of a few publications that provide information on beavers, arranged alphabetically by first author. Listing a publication here does not mean that the Refuge necessarily endorses or agrees with anything mentioned. Be aware that much of the literature on beavers is by or from people who view the beaver as a resource or 'pest', with 'management' for human convenience or economic gain as a primary goal.

You can see more items on beavers in our Beavers in the News page.

  1. Albert, Steven and Trimble, Timothy. 2000. "Beavers are partners in riparian restoration on the Zuni Indian reservation." Ecological Restoration 18(2): 87-92. accessed 2019-04-15
  2. Anonymous. 2018. Montclair State University: Beaver Ecology course. accessed 2019-04-15
  3. Anonymous. 2013. "Beaver: Best management practices." Grand Canyon Trust, Flagstaff, AZ.
  4. Aschwanden, Christie. 2002. "Leave the wetlands to beaver." National Wildlife Federation.
  5. Brown, S.; Shafer, D. and Anderson, S. 2001. "Control of beaver flooding at restoration projects." WRAP Technical Notes Collection (ERDC TN-WRAP-01-01), U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS.
  6. Busher, Peter and R. Dzieciolowski (eds). 1999. "Beaver Protection, Management and Utilization in Europe and North America." Plenum Publishers, New York. accessed 2019-04-15
  7. Butler, David R. 1991. "Beavers as agents of biogeomorphic change: A review and suggestions for teaching exercises." Journal of Geography 90(5): 210-217. accessed 2019-04-15
  8. Butts, William L. 1986. "Changes in local mosquito fauna following beaver (Castor canadensis) activity." Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 2(3):300-304.
  9. The nature of the mosquito fauna in such impoundments can be of considerable interest to the associated human populations. The information presented here indicates that the presence of increased areas of impounded permanent water need not necessarily mean that larger pest mosquito populations will appear.
  10. Butts, William L. 1992. "Changes in local mosquito fauna following beaver (Castor canadensis) activity - An update." Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 8(3):331-332.
  11. Drastic reduction of populations of univoltine temporary pool mosquitoes followed impoundment of breeding areas by beavers. Mosquito populations persist at very low levels over a 10-year period with no evidence of mosquito development in the impoundment.
  12. Buyukmihci, Hope Sawyer and Fantel, Hans. 1968. "Unexpected Treasure." M. Evans and Company, Inc., New York; 190 pages.
  13. Buyukmihci, Hope Sawyer. 1971. "Hour of the Beaver." Rand McNally & Company, Chicago; 173 pages.
  14. Callahan, Michael; Berube, Richard and Tourkantonis, Isabel. 2019. Billerica Municipal Beaver Management Program: 2000 - 2019 Analysis. 8 pp.
  15. A total of 55 beaver conflict sites were studied from 2000 through 2019. This first of its kind study revealed that the sites managed with nonlethal control methods cost significantly less than sites that were managed with beaver removal. In addition, nonlethal control methods provided millions of dollars of ecological services to the town annually that would have been lost with beaver removal.
  16. Clausen, G. and Ersland, A. 1970-1971. "Blood O2 and acid-ase changes in the beaver during submersion." Respiration Physiology 11(1): 104-112. accessed 2019-04-15
  17. Collins, Tom. 1993. "The role of beaver in riparian habitat management." Bulletin 38, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, Wyoming. accessed 2019-04-15
  18. Doucet, Christine M. and Fryxell, John M. 1993. "The effect of nutritional quality on forage preference by beavers. Oikos 67(2): 201-208." accessed 2019-04-15
  19. Gaworecki, Mike. 2018. "Audio: Beavers matter more than you think". Mongabay. accessed 2019-04-15
  20. Goldfarb, Ben. 2018. "Eager: The Surprising, Secret Life of Beavers and Why They Matter." White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing. accessed 2019-04-15
  21. Grover, Anita M. 1993. "Influence of beaver on bird and mammal species richness within wetlands of different sizes in south-central New York." Thesis (M.S.), State University of New York. College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse. accessed 2019-05-08
  22. Haemig, Paul D. 2012. "Ecology of the beaver." Ecology Online Sweden.
  23. Halley, Duncan; Rosell, Frank and Saveljev, Alexander. 2012. "Population and distribution of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber)." Baltic Forestry 18(1): 168-175.
  24. Hand, D. 1984. "The beaver's tale: Out of the woods and into hot water." Smithsonian 15(8):162-171. accessed 2019-04-16
  25. Hodgdon, Harry E. and Larson, Joseph S. 1973. "Some sexual differences in behaviour within a colony of marked beavers (Castor canadensis)." Animal Behaviour 21(1): 147-152. accessed 2019-04-16
  26. Hodgdon, Harry E. 1978. "Social dynamics and behavior within an unexploited beaver (Castor canadensis) population." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts. accessed 2019-04-16
  27. Kindschy, R.R. 1985. "Response of red willow to beaver use in southeastern Oregon." Journal of Wildlife Management 49(1): 26-28. accessed 2019-04-16
  28. Langlios, Susan; Decker, Thomas and Henner, Chrissie. 2004. "The use of water flow devices in addressing flooding problems caused by beaver in Massachusetts." Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife.
  29. Lazar, Julia G.; Addy, Kelly; Gold, Arthur J.; Groffman, Peter M.; McKinney, Richard A. and Kellogg, Dorothy Q. 2015. "Beaver ponds: Resurgent nitrogen sinks for rural watersheds in the northeastern United States." Journal of Environmental Quality 44(5): 1684-1693.
  30. Ecosystem services may include the abatement of dryland streams (Gibson and Olden, 2014), promotion of waterbird communities (Nummi and Holopainen, 2014), increase in salmon production (Pollock et al., 2004), and the removal of reactive N from the watershed as discussed herein.
  31. Long, Kim. 2000. "Beavers: A Wildlife Handbook." Johnson Books, Boulder, Colorado; 182 pages. accessed 2019-04-16
  32. Macdonald, D.W.; Tattersall, F.H.; Brown, E.D. and Balharry, D. 1995. "Reintroducing the European beaver to Britain: Nostalgic meddling or restoring biodiversity?" Mammal Review. 25(4): 161-200. accessed 2019-04-16
  33. MacDonald, James. 2018. "The busy, beneficial beaver." JSTOR Daily accessed 2019-04-16 (file copy; click linked image to enlarge)
  34. McCall, Thomas C.; Hodgman, Thomas P.; Diefenbach, Duane R. and Owen, Ray B. 1996. "Beaver populations and their relation to wetland habitat and breeding waterfowl in Maine." Wetlands 16(2): 163-172.
  35. McKinstry, Mark C.; Caffrey, Paul and Anderson, Stanley H. 2001. "The importance of beaver to wetland habitats and waterfowl in Wyoming." Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 37(6): 1571-1577. accessed 2019-04-16
  36. McKinstry, Mark C. and Anderson, Stanley H. 2002. "Survival, fates, and success of transplanted beavers, Castor canadensis, in Wyoming." The Canadian Field-Naturalist 116:60-68.
  37. From 1994 to 1999 we trapped and relocated 234 Beaver to 14 areas throughout Wyoming to improve riparian habitat and create natural wetlands. We attached radio transmitters to 114 Beaver and subsequently determined movements and mortality of release Beaver...Mortality and emigration (including transmitter failure) accounted for the loss of 30% and 51%, respectively, of telemetered Beaver within 6 months of release. ...2-3.5 year-old Beaver had higher average success (measured in days of occupancy at the release site) than older animals. Animals < 2 years old had 100% mortality and emigration losses within 6 months of release.
  38. Mills, Enos A. 1990. "In Beaver World." University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska; 255 pages. accessed 2019-04-16
  39. Morgan, Rosalind Grace. 1991. "Beaver ecology/beaver mythology." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. accessed 2019-04-16
  40. Muller-Schwarze, Dietland. 2011. "The Beaver: Its Life and Impact, Second Edition." Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York; 228 pages. accessed 2019-04-16
  41. Naiman, Robert, J.; Johnston, Carol A. and Kelly, James C. 1988. "Alteration of North American streams by beaver." BioScience 38(11): 753-762.
  42. O'Connor, Joe. 2018. "'We have caught (them) in the act': Beavers are invading Alaska, the final frontier". National Post accessed 2019-04-16 (file copy)
  43. Petro, Vanessa M. 2013. "Evaluating "nuisance" beaver relocation as a tool to increase coho salmon habitat in the Alsea Basin of the central Oregon Coast Range."
  44. I trapped and transported 38 individuals to the nine release sites where dams constructed by beavers would benefit coho salmon productivity. All adult and sub-adult beavers were equipped with tail-mount transmitters. ... All radio-tagged individuals dispersed from their release sites. Survival 16 weeks post-release was 47%. Twelve of the radio-tagged beavers died within 90 days of release. Three cause-specific sources of mortality were identified including predation, natural causes, and human related. Mountain lions (Puma concolor) were responsible for the majority of predation based mortalities. Of the 38 nuisance beavers relocated, only five individuals contributed to the nine dams constructed post-release.
  45. Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh A.; Carless, Donna and Brazier, Richard E. 2018. "Sediment and nutrient storage in a beaver engineered wetland." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. accessed 2019-08-13
  46. Whilst further research is required into the long term storage and nutrient cycling within beaver ponds, results indicate that beaver ponds may help to mitigate the negative offsite impacts of accelerated soil erosion and diffuse pollution from agriculturally dominated landscapes such as the intensively managed grassland in this study.
  47. Richards, Dorothy and Buyukmihci, Hope Sawyer. 1977. Beaversprite: My Years Building an Animal Sanctuary." Chronicle Books, San Francisco, California; 191 pages.
  48. Ryden, Hope. 1990. "Lily Pond: Four Years with a Family of Beavers." HarperCollins Publishers, New York; 256 pages. accessed 2019-04-16
  49. Taylor, Jimmy D., David L. Bergman, and Dale L. Nolte. 2009. "An overview of the International Beaver Ecology and Management Workshop." Proceedings of the 13th WDM Conference:225-234.
  50. Tournay, Audrey. 2003. "Beaver Tales." Boston Mills Press, Ontario, Canada; 168 pages. accessed 2019-04-16
  51. Turrentine, Jeff. 2018. "Beavers are the working-class heroes of their ecosystems -- America should appreciate them more." Natural Resources Defense Council. accessed 2019-04-16 (file copy)
  52. Wright, Justin P.; Jones, Clive G. and Flecker, Alexander S. 2002. "An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale." Oecologia 132: 96-101.